All Indian coins, like those of Rs 10, 5, 2 or 1, are token coins since their value as money is more than value of metal contained in them. B Money increases economic efficiency because it discourages specialization. Simple counting: Paper money will be a lot simpler to count than metallic money. You deposited your 50 gold coins with a banker, and he gave you a certificate that you could use in your transactions as money. Such deposits do not have backing in terms of any bullion gold or silver. A large amount can be carried conveniently in the pocket without anybody knowing it.
They assert that gold is no more essential to the monetary unit than brass or wood of a ruler is to the yard or meter. As it is nearly always depreciating, its loss of purchasing power causes prices to rise. Exchanging the certificate for the actual commodity is not representative money, it is commodity money. Therefore, at the beginning, convertible bank money was based on precious metal coins. They were issued to pay for the silver bullion which the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to purchase and were redeemable either in gold or silver coin at his option.
One of the few exceptions is the U. It is to be noted that a cheque by itself is not money; it is only a credit instrument which performs the functions of money. Prices shoot up, which results in suffering for the people with fixed incomes. A government can tide over a period of difficulty by the issue of paper money. To the left of the portrait is a design representing the heart of a Copihue, the National Flower of Chile. A fractional reserve of full-bodied money is kept as guarantee for repayment.
No one can lawfully refuse to accept any amount of this money. Unless the government gives a believable promise that the paper money will soon be convertible on demand in full-weight metallic coin, that confidence declines. The only limitation to the quantity of paper money is the speed at which printing presses can run and the speed at which printing presses, inks, and papers can be manufactured. D encouraging specialization and the division of labor. They can keep their cash reserves against liabilities in this form, for currency notes are full length tender. Depreciating paper money fluctuates primarily for two reasons. Standard Money: Standard Money is that form of money in terms of which all other forms of money in the country are measured.
The use of paper money has many advantages. The painting is anoil on canvas, presently kept at the University of Chile. Printing of paper currency is requires certain special types of paper, ink, and printing technology. The fiat money is that money which has face value more than its real value. D paper money is always backed by gold and therefore more desirable than checks.
B the Federal Reserve does not employ or report different measures of the money supply. However, inconvertible paper money remains in the country; thus, its value fluctuates with changing demand. When the link with metal is broken, there is a tendency to over-issue paper money. Benefit of unlimited legal tender: Paper money is unlimited tender i. Token Coins: A coin has value because it is made of a valuable metal. When demand declines, its value declines. Credit cards, bank deposits are other examples of credit money.
The main characteristics of convertible paper money are: a The individuals can get their paper money converted into cash, b The paper money is backed by gold and silver reserves. The gold or silver reserves are not kept by the monetary authority. The metals works extremely well for other useful purposes. No such mechanism exists to halt the overissue of inconvertible paper money. It also gives no guarantee to convert the paper currency into gold and silver. If the depreciation occurs during wartime, the argument is that the enemy is flooding the country with counterfeit notes. Promoters of inconvertible paper money based their assertion of the superiority of inconvertible paper to metallic coin on several principles.
The paper money is fiat money. Adherents of inconvertible paper money argue that gold is not essential to defining the monetary unit. She was the first Latin American and the only Ibero-American woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature which she won in 1945 for her lyric poetry which inspired by powerful emotions has made her a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world. The government keeps such reserves for the holders of paper money when they demand it. For example, a personal check is backed by the money in a bank account. On occasion, more depositors would want to withdraw metal than the actual stock of precious metals held by banks, which led to bank runs. When compared to exchange systems that rely on money, disadvantages of the barter system include: A the requirement of a double coincidence of wants.