Victorian prosperity for an elite was built on the development of new machinery, new work methods and an underpaid workforce consisting of adults and children living in wretched poverty. The victims were all prostitutes. British industry redefined global technology, and British society became the standard for the Western world. The role of women during this time began to change as they entered the work force and questions began to surface about their rights to own property, have money, and vote. The brutal degrading conditions were so awful that drunkenness and opium taking was usual as their homelife had so little to offer. The middle class consisted of newly educated experts in industrial technologies, along with other college-educated professionals like doctors, engineers, and lawyers. A clerk, reduced to the workhouse perhaps because of a gap between jobs, had to try to break granite rocks with a heavy hammer, in an open shed with no protection from frost or heat, when he had never held anything heavier than a pen.
Who were considered part of the middle class? Process Here are some links provided for you to complete your paragraph. Disputes were commonplace, and often caused by drunkenness. It is strange with how little notice, good, bad, or indifferent, a man may live and die in London. The Blackest Streets: The Life and Death of a Victorian Slum. Forget-me-nots are used to symbolize and affection and a wish that love never dies.
While Biddy is within the same social class as Pip and thus accepts him as he is, Estella is astonished when Miss. At age 42, she travelled abroad on a doctor's recommendation. Many railway tracks, train stations are from the Victorian era. However, it was only in nursing, the one most subject to the supervision and authority of male doctors, that women were widely accepted. While the custom began in Europe, it spread to England and America quickly, and the intricate courtesies of how and when to leave cards was a facet of Victorian social life and etiquette. The British underclass worked menial jobs when they were available, and there were no labor laws to protect them from abuses. Begging might make more illegally, especially if the beggar woman could use — even hire — a small child.
Child labor was prevalent; children were used to crawl into small work spaces in jobs such as mining and chimney sweeping. The iconic wide-brimmed women's hats of the later Victorian era also followed the trend towards ostentatious display. Thus, parents were forced to send their children to work and bring some more money. The ideal Victorian woman was pure, chaste, refined, and modest. By 1870 Britain had grown from 10 million at the start of the century to over 26 million. In this conversation, Dickens ridicules the women — who, by traditional Victorian standards are the people who provide clothing for their children — for making such a scene over the necessity of having black ribbons for mourning.
Another portion of the upper middle class was made of those whose success was a direct result of the Industrial Revolution. The silhouette was replaced by a trend towards ornate styles and an artificial silhouette, with the restrictiveness of women's clothing reaching its low point during the mid-century passion for narrow corseted waists and hoop skirts. Biddy is kind to Pip and helps him in school. It is interesting to note that, in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, clothes were still being hand-made, as factory textiles were not yet popular; as such, the lower classes had to make their own clothing, and their outfits were often shabby imitations of the styles worn by the upper class, further demonstrating the extreme gap between the two classes. What were the social class systems? They were to be strictly limited: After luncheon, morning calls and visits may be made and received. Here we believe Dickens is mocking Uncle Pumblechook for carrying some sort of airs about him because of the style of pants that he wears.
This belief gave them justification to treat colonial subjects poorly. There was a ready market for young virgins. A hand holding a fan symbolized flirtation. Being that Miss Havisham is notorious for her erratic behavior, as well as the fact that her dress in all likelihood both outdated and contradictory of her status as a spinster, it is possible to infer that Dickens would disapprove of this kind of behavior in polite society, and would likely support the more conventional and sexist roles affiliated with Victorian women and marriage. That is why the act of marriage between social classes tends to be the same. Joe is not the only character torn between her inner nature and societal expectations.
Many now had to walk miles to mill or factory work, whereas before they had frequently lived in the house or near land where they did their work. In 1880, became the first woman licensed to practice medicine in Canada. The aristocrat put aside 150 pounds per year for his sons from the day that they were born in order to send them to Eton to become gentlemen. Craftsman blacksmiths, tanners, carpenters could always be found in a rural setting. If they lived to be old, they would more than likely be very poor and return to poverty status.
The cost of rent was extremely high, especially when a worker wanted to live within walking distance of his place of employment. Dickens portrays this by allotting his characters to different social classes. As the Victorian era drew to a close, however, fashions were showing indications of a popular backlash against excessive styles. But upon the arrival of children, a woman could not continue to work a twelve to fourteen hour day. Nothing that he wore then fitted him or seemed to belong to him; and everything that he wore then grazed him. Girls and boys had to start working at a very young age.